He received full military honours. If he cannot make a graceful dive, he will at least have to jump in somehow; he can hardly put on his dressing-gown and walk down the stairs again."[64]. [61] Comando Supremo (the Italian High Command) consisted of only a small complement of staff that could do little more than inform the individual service commands of Mussolini's intentions, after which it was up to the individual service commands to develop proper plans and execution. [37] On 1 March, the British announced that they would block all coal exports from Rotterdam to Italy. Jul 8, 2015 #1 The Germans invaded on 6 April 1941, smashing through the skeleton garrisons opposing them with little resistance while the Italians continued a slow advance in Albania and Epirus as the Greeks withdrew, with the country falling to the Axis by the end of the month. Next Last. Pages 45, 87-88. An Italian "Spring Offensive" in March 1941, which tried to salvage the situation prior to German intervention, amounted to little in terms of territorial gains. After reorganising and re-grouping the Allies launched Operation Crusader in November 1941 which resulted in the Axis front line being pushed back once more to El Agheila by the end of the year. The problems that stand out to the vast majority of historians pertain to Italian strategy and equipment. [nb 1][nb 2][44][45] Almost 40% of the 1939 budget was allocated for military spending. Initial Italian attacks in East Africa took two different directions, one into Sudan and the other into Kenya. Japan reacted with shock and outrage to the news of the surrender of Italy to the Allied forces in September 1943. Mussolini also dramatically overestimated the ability of the Italian military at times, sending them into situations where failure was likely, such as the invasion of Greece. [nb 12] Other times, German mistakes were blamed on Italians,[129] or the Germans left the Italians in hopeless situations where failure was unavoidable. The Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 compelled Italy to pay $360,000,000 (US dollars at 1938 prices) in war reparations: $125,000,000 to Yugoslavia, $105,000,000 to Greece, $100,000,000 to the Soviet Union, $25,000,000 to Ethiopia and $5,000,000 to Albania. The official Italian government accounting of World War II 1940–45 losses listed the following data: Prisoner-of-war losses are included with military losses mentioned above. [132][133] Alan J.Levine, an author who has also extensively worked with Italian sources, points out that while Allied efforts to choke off Rommel's supply lines were eventually successful and played the decisive role in the Allied victory in Africa, the Italians who defended it, especially navy commanders, were not feeble-minded or incompetent at all. The loyalist Italian government (sometimes referred to as the "Kingdom of the South" (it)) declared war on Germany on 13 October, aligning Italy within the Western Allies as a co-belligerent. They were divided between the 5th army in the west and the 10th army in the east and thus spread out from the Tunisian border in western Libya to Sidi Barrani in Egypt. In Sudan and Kenya, Italy captured small territories around several border villages, after which the Italian Royal Army in East Africa adopted a defensive posture in preparation for expected British counterattacks. of Chicago Press. Seems different groups tried every one of those things and and they all ended poorly. In January 1943 the Italians refused to cooperate with the Nazis in rounding up Jews living in the occupied zone of France under their control and in March prevented the Nazis from deporting Jews in their zone. [16], As early as September 1938, the Italian military had drawn up plans to invade Albania. In the area of Rome, only one infantry division—the Granatieri di Sardegna—and some small armoured units fought with commitment, but by 11 September they were overwhelmed by superior German forces. [107] Jewish Holocaust victims totalled 8,562 (including Libya). Some Italians, after their defeat, waged a guerilla war mainly in Eritrea and Ethiopia, that lasted until fall 1943. Notable among them was Amedeo Guillet. The two countries were allied in both World Wars. By February, the Axis forces in Tunisia were joined by Rommel's forces, after their long withdrawal from El Alamein, which were re-designated the Italian First Army (under Giovanni Messe) when Rommel left to command the Axis forces to the north at the Battle of the Kasserine Pass. "[75], Italian forces around Sidi Barrani had severe weaknesses in their deployment. Military History related links - modern or ancient! ARMIR was also known as the 8th Army. [10] The aftermath of the war in Ethiopia saw a reconciliation of German-Italian relations following years of a previously strained relationship, resulting in the signing of a treaty of mutual interest in October 1936. The Germans promised to keep up shipments by train, over the Alps, and Britain offered to supply all of Italy's needs in exchange for Italian armaments. Press J to jump to the feed. Following the attacks on these two battleships, an Italian-dominated Mediterranean Sea appeared much more possible to achieve. Wavell was hoping to see the Italians overextend themselves before his intended counter at Marsa Matruh. Badoglio and Roatta were appalled given that, acting on his orders, they had demobilised 600,000 men three weeks prior. [40] Of the Regia Aeronautica's approximately 1,760 aircraft, only 900 could be considered in any way combat-worthy. A supporting attack was made from Kenya by the South African 1st Division, the 11th African Division, and the 12th African Division. 122–123. The Regia Marina maintained a small squadron in the Italian East Africa area. Japan planned to arm the production model with an 88mm gun, based off a German 1920s 88mm AA gun captured in China in the 1930s, a forerunner of the Flak 18. The next day Mussolini met with the King, was dismissed as prime minister, and was then imprisoned. Rev. By the summer of 1943 the Allies were poised for an invasion of the Italian homeland. After the Operation Torch landings in the Vichy French territories of Morocco and Algeria (November 1942) British, American and French forces advanced east to engage the German-Italian forces in the Tunisia Campaign. Citing:' SME/US, Grecia, I, 943'. 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